Vivid Leds, Inc. features LED T8 replacement bulbs. LED technology continues to develop rapidly as a general light source, and more LED light fixtures, for example LED T8 replacement lamps, have been introduced on the market.

We can retrofit your lamps with LED T8 tubes.

Recently, commercially available white LEDs luminous efficacy have achieved over 90 lm/w, compared with 80-100 lm/w of existing T8 fluorescent lamp. Existing T8 fluorescent lamps work with troffers, whose efficiency ranges from only 60% to 74%. In addition to having a high efficacy, LEDs also have a longer life time, they save energy and are mercury free.

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T8 LED vs. Philips:

 

T8 LED
HFL-8060N-120602-H0, 1.2m/4ft

Philips
ALTO T8 32W

Physical Specifications

Lamp Base

G13

G13

Electrical Specifications

Power Consumption (W)

20±1 (incl. driver)

40±1 (incl. ballast)

Input Voltage (VAC)

100~240 VAC

100~240 VAC

Power Factor (%)

>0.95

0.97

Optical Specifications

Luminous Flux (lm)

1500±100

2500±100

Illumination (lux)

360@1m

362@1m

114@2m

119@2m

58@3m

61@3m

Luminous Efficacy (lm/w)

85 (incl. driver)

68 (incl. ballast)

Luminaire Efficiency (%)

100 (troffer unneeded)

60-74 (troffer needed)

Color Temperature (K)

6000~6500

6500

Color Rendering Index

>80

78

Beam Angle (°)

120

360

Life Time (Hrs)

50,000~60,000

10,000~20,000

Lumen Maintenance (%)

>96@5,000hrs

≤80@5,000hrs

Thermal Specifications

Operating Temperature (℃)

-20~40℃

-10~50℃

T8 LED vs. Common T8 LED Replacement Lamps:

Currently, the most efficacious white LEDs can perform similarly to fluorescent lamp. However, LED efficacy doesn’t tell the whole story. Good T8 LED replacement lamps shall combine high efficacy and brand LEDs, excellent thermal management, and sophisticated optical design. Conversely, poorly-designed T8 LED replacement lamps using even the best LEDs may be no more efficient or no longer life over existing T8 fluorescent lamps.

One of the most basic decision factors for T8 LED replacement lamp selection is longevity of the lamp.  However, the lighting industry has very limited direct experience with long-term performance and reliability of T8 LED replacement lamps.

In summary, T8 LED replacement lamp life is not identical to estimated LED life. T8 LED replacement lamp life is also a function of the power supply, operating temperatures, thermal management, materials and electrical and material interfaces. How can T8 LED replacement lamp reliability be assessed?

Some things to look for:

  • Use of high quality LEDs from brand suppliers who publish reliability data.
  • Superior heat sink design to dissipate heat, minimizing T8 LED replacement lamp temperature (for example, board, case, or solder joint temperature) as low as possible.
  • Optical specification from independent testing laboratory or manufacturer in-house testing.
  • Warranty offered by the manufacturer should be at least comparable to traditional fluorescent lamp for the application under consideration.
  • Any test data available about longer term performance of T8 LED replacement lamp.

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Critical Term Comparison, T8 LED vs. Common T8 LED Replacement Lamps:

 

T8 LED
HFL-8060N-120602-H0, 1.2m/4ft

Common LED
Fluorescent Lamp 1.2m/4ft

Physical Specifications

Lighting Source

 Imported high quality
SMD LEDs1

DIP LEDs(5mm)1

Life Time (Hrs)

50,000~60,000

5,000~10,000

Electrical Specifications

Power Consumption (W)

20±1 (incl. driver)

20±1 (incl. driver)

Power Factor

>0.95

0.75

Optical Specifications

Lumen Maintenance (%)

>96@10,000 Hrs

<60@5000 Hrs

Thermal Specifications

Case Temperature (℃)

50

34.62

Solder Joint Temperature (℃)

52

>702

Junction Temperature (℃)

<73

>1102

  1. Refer to below figure for more information about lumen maintenance comparison between SMD LED and DIP LED.
  2. These temperature numbers proves common T8 LED replacement lamp has much heat buildup inside the tube, shortening the lamp life.

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Typical Lumen Maintenance Comparison: SMD LED vs. DIP LED:

Typical Lumen Maintenance Comparison: SMD LED vs. DIP LED

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Exploded Drawing Comparison:

T8 LED

Common T8 LED replacement lamp

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Section Drawing Comparison:

T8 LED -vs- Common T8 LED

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Conclusion - T8 LED vs. Philips

T8 LED is using imported high quality SMD LEDs, of high luminous efficacy (typical 90lm/w). They have similar light quality as Philips. Table 1 shows that illuminance (lux) of T8 LED™ is comparable with Philips’s.

T8 LED are 50% energy saving compared to Philips. The energy-efficient T8 LED keeps on burning for up to 50,000 hours significantly reducing the time spent on replacing defective lamps. Therefore, T8 LED not only lowers energy bills, but also maintenance and replacement costs.

T8 LED are RoHS compliant and contain no toxic phosphor powders, mercury (Hg) or lead (Pb) which is always seen in conventional fluorescent lamps.

T8 LED™ vs. Common T8 LED replacement lamp:

T8 LED are much more reliable than common T8 LED replacement lamps on the markets:

  1. They are made of imported high quality SMD LEDs, with low lumen depreciation
  2. They are using specially designed aluminum housing with good heat dissipation, and have no heat buildup inside
  3. They are using specially designed loop circuit, one LED fail won’t make the whole lamp fail.

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Common T8 LED replacement lamp:

Common T8 LED replacement lamp features a linear array of 5mm DIP LEDs (suitable for indication applications, ranging from 60 to 400 LEDs per lamp), with airtight clear tubular plastic or glass covers as heat sink and diffuser, and integrated driver (non-isolated constant voltage type). As plastic and glass are not good heat conduction materials, this kind of design will cause heat buildup inside the tube, depreciate lumen quickly and shorten useful life of T8 LED replacement lamp.

In contrast, T8 LED LED tube lights feature a linear array of imported high quality SMD LEDs (ranging from 30 to 88 LEDs per lamp), with patented design of aluminum housing as heat sink, stripped PC cover as diffuser and UL listed integrated driver (isolated constant current type).

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Glossary Terms:

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are based on inorganic (non-carbon based) materials. An LED is a semi-conducting device that produces light when an electrical current flows through it. LEDs were first developed in the 1960s but were used only in indicator applications until recently.

General illumination is a term used to distinguish between lighting that illuminates tasks, spaces, or objects from lighting used in indicator or purely decorative applications. In most cases, general illumination is provided by white light sources, including incandescent, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge sources, and white LEDs. Lighting used for indication or decoration is often monochromatic, as in traffic lights, exit signs, vehicle brake lights, signage, LED replacement bulbs and holiday lights.

Luminous efficacy is the most commonly used measure of the energy efficiency of a light source. It is stated in lumens per watt (lm/W), indicating the amount of light a light source produces for each watt of electricity consumed. For white high-brightness LEDs, luminous efficacy published by LED manufacturers typically refers to the LED chip only, and doesn't include driver losses.

Correlated color temperature (CCT) is the measure used to describe the relative color appearance of a white light source. CCT indicates whether a light source appears more yellow/gold/orange or more blue, in terms of the range of available shades of "white." CCT is given in kelvins (unit of absolute temperature).

Color rendering index (CRI) indicates how well a light source renders colors of people and objects, compared to a reference source.

Phosphor conversion is a method used to generate white light with LEDs. A blue or near-ultraviolet LED is coated with a yellow or multichromatic phosphor, resulting in white light.

Lumen depreciation – the decrease in lumen output that occurs as a lamp is operated.

Rated lamp life – the life value assigned to a particular type lamp. This is commonly a statistically determined estimate of average or median operational life. For certain lamp types other criteria than failure to light can be used; for example, the life can be based on the average time until the lamp type produces a given fraction of initial luminous flux.

Conduction – transfer of heat through matter by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle. An example is the use of a conductive metal such as copper to transfer heat.

Convection – heat transfer through the circulatory motion in a fluid (liquid or gas) at a non-uniform temperature. Liquid or gas surrounding a heat source provides cooling by convection, such as air flow over a car radiator.

Radiation – energy transmitted through electromagnetic waves. Examples are the heat radiated by the sun and by incandescent lamps.

Junction temperature (Tj) – temperature within the LED device. Direct measurement of Tj is impractical but can be calculated based on a known case or board temperature and the materials’thermal resistance.

Heat sink – thermally conductive material attached to the printed circuit board on which the LED is mounted. Myriad heat sink designs are possible; often a “finned” design is used to increase the surface area available for heat transfer. For general illumination applications, heat sinks are often incorporated into the functional and aesthetic design of the luminaire, effectively using the luminaire chassis as a heat management device.


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History of the T8 fixture

In 1981, the 32-watt T8 lamp was introduced in the United States, providing further improvements in 4-foot fluorescent lamps. Today, the T8 lamp is the standard for new construction and is a popular replacement for 34-watt T12 lamps. All major lamp manufacturers market T8 lamps of various wattages, and they are readily available in a variety of linear and U-shaped configurations.

Lighting manufacturers have been improving T8 fluorescent lamps for many years by enhancing key performance characteristics, including light output, efficacy, rated life, maintained light output, and color. This issue of Lighting Answers explores these characteristics of T8 fluorescent lamps and brings them together in the context of overall performance. This publication also explores the cost of T8 lamps and how performance characteristics might contribute to price differentials.

Removing Fluorescent lights?

Can we save energy by removing some of the fluorescent lights?

It depends what type of ballast is being used in the fixture. For standard 4-foot lights, you are most likely to have one of the following:

The most common ballast is a two-light magnetic ballast. You probably have this type of ballast if you are using F40 T12 lights. It is a series ballast, which means that if you remove one light, the remaining light will glow dimly and sputter. You should not remove a light from this type of ballast to save energy. (There are also three-light magnetic ballasts and four-light magnetic ballasts, and they are parallel-series types that will behave much like a two-light ballast, above. These are very rare, however.)

There are single light magnetic ballasts. Removing a light won't have any effect on any other lights, but the ballast will continue to draw some energy. Removing a light does save energy, but not nearly save as much as when you disconnect the ballast.

Many buildings use the modern F32 T8 lights and parallel circuit electronic ballasts. The most common electronic ballasts are three-light and four-light. In general, removing one or more lights is fine and power is reduced. The remaining lights will usually put out a little more light and the reduction in power and light is proportional.

There are also series and series-parallel electronic ballasts. A series electronic ballast has the same limitations as a series magnetic ballast.

You must also remember that many three-light ATG LED lighting fixtures are wired so that there is one two-light ballast in one lighting fixture and two two-light ballasts in another, with the third light in each fixture sharing the second ballast.

The first test is to remove one light and see what happens. If you have series ballasts, removing one light will cause one or more other lights to turn dim and sputter. In this case, you should abandon the idea of removing lights. If the remaining light or lights continue to operate, you either have parallel circuit ballasts or single light ballasts. Removing lights is generally OK, and with each light removed, you reduce power. With electronic ballasts, the power will go down proportionately with the number of removed lights. With magnetic ballasts, the power will go down, but not as much. It is better to disconnect magnetic ballasts than to simply remove lights.

As with any type of electrical work, qualified electricians should be employed to disconnect ballasts and to make any other wiring changes.

T12 vs. T8?

How much energy can be saved by switching from T12 lights and magnetic ballasts to T8 lights and electronic ballasts?

If you replace your existing T12 lighting system with T8 lights and magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts, you will see a reduction of lighting energy by 17 to 48 percent depending on the specific lights and ballasts. In some instances, you may want to remove some of the existing T12 lights and not replace them. You may also use one electronic ballast to serve four lights instead of one magnetic ballast for two lights previously installed. Or, you may use specular reflectors to further enhance light distribution. The overall result may bring 50 percent savings without compromising the quality of delivered light as with LED T5 bulbs and a LED T8 tube or LED T8 bulbs.

Renovating: Upgrade or replace?

When renovating the building, is it better to upgrade the lighting system to more efficient lights and ballasts or replace the existing fixtures altogether?

It all depends on your particular situation. As you are well aware, building renovation involves compliance with the current building code which may affect your decision one way or the other. Your design team (architect, engineer or contractor) should be able to advise which scheme is more beneficial to you.

Generally, if your renovations are modest and you are not changing your lighting system in any major way, most older systems can be retrofitted to use less energy. You should probably retrofit your lighting system if:

The fixtures are not being moved and your design team recommends retrofitting the fixtures in place.

You have a relatively modern lighting system that require simple cleaning and retrofitting of T8 lights and ballasts. Retrofit reflectors may permit delamping to further reduce energy use.

You have an open commercial or industrial lighting system that can be easily retrofitted in place.

You should probably replace your lighting system if:

It is an old style lighting system that is no longer suitable for modern office environment. Modern office space with computers generally should be updated to either parabolic troffers or suspended indirect lighting systems, and the energy savings will often pay for the cost of the new lighting system.

The existing lighting system is sufficiently worn, broken, or damaged to warrant a new system. The cost of disassembly, repair, washing, new reflector, wiring, ballast and lights and re-installation may well exceed the cost of removing the fixture, disposal and a new fixture purchase and installation.

Regardless of your decision you should check with your local utility the available rebate programs, that could reduce your capital outlay for the project.

There are few differences between T8 and T12 fluorescent bulbs. T8 bulbs are smaller in diameter than T12 bulbs (1 inch vs. 1.5 inch) and are available in the same lengths. Both use the same combination of gases to produce light.

The magnetic ballasts used in T12 fixtures are less efficient than the electronic ballasts used in the newer T8 fixtures. This results in a moderate reduction in energy consumption when the T12 ballasts installed in existing fixtures are replaced by T8 ballasts. The electronic ballasts used in the T8 fixtures also allow the bulb to be dimmed, which is not possible with other types of fluorescent ballasts.

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Vivid Leds, Inc.
North Canton, OH USA
800-974-3570

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